# Urban participatory assessment in Dakar, Senegal

“More than half of the world’s population is urban and although cities are often seen as economic powerhouses urban growth also leads to poverty, inequality and exclusion, most evident in the rapidly growing number of people living in disadvantaged urban areas. Because growing up in slums cuts children and young people off from the benefits of citizenship and from the opportunities of social mobility that the city could (and should) offer, children and young people residing in slums are increasingly marginalized from social, political and economic opportunities as well as participation in decision making (governance) and development initiatives. The poor

# TSFP coverage assessment pilot surveys

Coverage – the proportion of all people needing or eligible to receive a service who actually receive that service – is an important measure of a programme’s ability to meet need. Timely, appropriate and high-quality monitoring of coverage is therefore essential in planning, implementing and tracking the progress of programmes such as those for maternal, newborn and child health and nutrition1. However, large gaps still exist with regard to coverage data and assessment of these programmes1,2,3. For example, only 11 out of 75 countries that account for 95% of maternal and child deaths had data on all 8 coverage indicators

# Spatial Mapping of Nutrition Programming Phase 1

This report provides output for Phase 1 of DFID’s spatial mapping of nutrition programming project. The overall project comprises two discrete phases and aims to better understand if and how spatial analysis can help to coordinate and co-locate nutrition relevant programmes. The rationale for the project is based on the recognition that cross-sector actions are essential to achieve sustained reductions in undernutrition, yet to date limited information is readily available on the spatial overlap of interventions funded by DFID and others to tackle the problem. In addition, data on the determinants of malnutrition is rarely accurately mapped and prevalence data

# Coverage of a complementary food supplement in three districts in Eastern Ghana

The current project aims to deliver through a market-based approach a complementary food supplement to infants and young children in three districts in Eastern Ghana. We completed a spatially representative survey, using the Simple Spatial Survey Method (S3M) design, two months into the project with the aim of assessing coverage and barriers to coverage early in the program cycle. The S3M approach allowed for fine scale geographical coverage maps and wide-area population-level estimates to be produced. The data presented here are from an S3M sample with $\ d = 8 \text {km} \$ (i.e. no person lived more

# CMAM coverage in northern Nigeria

A coverage survey using the Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage or SLEAC methodology was carried out across 71 Local Government Areas (LGAs) implementing CMAM program in 11 states in the north of Nigeria. The SLEAC used a two-standards, three-class classifier with 20% and 50% as the thresholds to determine low, moderate and high coverage classes (i.e. 20% or less, between 20% and 50% and greater than 50% respectively). Of the 71 LGAs surveyed, more than half have moderate coverage (40 LGAs) but only 4 have high coverage. There are 27 LGAs with low coverage. At

# CMAM coverage and IYCF practices in 2 zones in Ethiopia

With the adoption of the CMAM model at sub-national to national levels in countries such as Ethiopia, the need for a coverage method that can provide information about coverage over large areas has become important. In the Conference on Government experiences of Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition and Scaling Up Nutrition held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 2011, the Ethiopian delegation reported that a key learning point of their CMAM scale-up experience was the “need for systems to monitor and improve quality of services early on”1,2 and highlighted the importance of strengthening monitoring and evaluation to maintain quality of programming.

# Investigation of defaulting in a CMAM programme

In 2009, the Gombe state Ministry of Health (MoH) with technical assistance from Valid International and UNICEF initiated Community-based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programming in three local government areas (LGA): Gombe, Dukku and Nafada. Although admission numbers have been impressive, from the outset health facilities have also consistently reported high levels of defaulting, sometimes as much as 50% of the total programme exits. The serious, early and widespread nature of defaulting across the CMAM programmes in the state was confirmed by a Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC) investigation in March 20101. The defaulter problem was further elucidated

# Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic opportunities

Empowering New Generations to Improve Nutrition and Economic Opportunities, commonly known as ENGINE, supports the Government of Ethiopia’s efforts to improve the nutritional status of women and young children. The ENGINE program provides nutrition and health services to 3.1 million children under the age of five, half a million pregnant and lactating women and 3.2 million women of reproductive age in 100 woredas in the Amhara, Tigray, Oromia, and SNNP regions. The ENGINE program also provides nutrition services to 2.7 million households participating in agricultural and livelihood programs sponsored by USAID. In addition, ENGINE provides nutrition and health services for

# CMAM coverage and IYCF practices in 5 regions of Niger

The Simple Spatial Survey Method (S3M) was developed from the Centric Systematic Area Sampling (CSAS) coverage survey method as a response to the widespread adoption of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) by ministries of health. Large-scale programmes need a large-scale survey method and S3M was developed to meet that need. S3M was designed to: Be simple enough for MoH, NGO and UNO personnel to perform.   Be able to survey areas up to ten times larger than the CSAS method for approximately twice the cost whilst maintaining the spatial resolution of CSAS surveys.   Provide a general survey method.

# National CMAM coverage in Sierra Leone

Introduction Community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) was initially piloted in four districts of Sierra Leone in 2007. Since then, the program had been expanded to provide CMAM services in various health centres in other districts. By 2010, all districts in the country had been implementing CMAM. Given the national scale of the CMAM program in Sierra Leone, a wide area survey method was needed to assess the coverage achieved by the program. UNICEF and the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) with technical support from Valid International conducted SLEAC or Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of